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Naming Acids

 

Acids-For simplicity, the acids that we will be concerned with naming are really just a special class of ionic compounds where the cation is always H+. So if the formula has hydrogen written first, then this usually indicates that the hydrogen is an H+ cation and that the compound is an acid. When dissolved in water, acids produce H+ ions (also called protons, since removing the single electron from a neutral hydrogen atom leaves behind one proton).

 

Rules for Naming Acids that Do Not Contain Oxygen in the Anion:

  • Since all these acids have the same cation, H+, we don't need to name the cation.
  • The acid name comes from the root name of the anion name.
  • The prefix hydro- and the suffix -ic are then added to the root name of the anion.

HCl, which contains the anion chloride, is called hydrochloric acid.

HCN, which contains the anion cyanide, is called hydrocyanic acid.

Rules for Naming Oxyacids (anion contains the element oxygen):

  • Since all these acids have the same cation, H+, we don't need to name the cation.
  • The acid name comes from the root name of the oxyanion name or the central element of the oxyanion.
  • Suffixes are used based on the ending of the original name of the oxyanion. If the name of the polyatomic anion ended with -ate, change it to -ic for the acid and if it ended with -ite, change it to -ous in the acid.

HNO3, which contains the polyatomic ion nitrate, is called nitric acid.

HNO2, which contains the polyatomic ion nitrite, is called nitrous acid.

Highlight to reveal Anion name and Acid name

Formula Anion Anion name Acid Name
HF Fis  fluoride hydrofluoric acid
HCl Clis  chloride hydrochloric acid
HBr Br is  bromide hydrobromic acid
HI Iis  iodide hydriodic acid
H2S S2- is  sulfide hydrosulfuric acid
HNO3 NO3- is  nitrate nitric acid
HC2H3O2 C2H3O2- is  acetate acetic acid
H2SO4 SO42- is  sulfate sulfuric acid
H2CO3 CO32- is  carbonate carbonic acid
H3PO4 PO43- is  phosphate phosphoric acid
HClO ClO» is  hypochlorite hypochlorous acid
HClO2 ClO2» is  chlorite chlorous acid
HClO3 ClO3» is  chlorate chloric acid
HClO4 ClO4» is  perchlorate perchloric acid
HIO3 IO3» is  iodate iodic acid
HNO2 NO2» is  nitrite nitrous acid
H2SO3 SO32- is  sulfite sulfurous acid

Naming Covalent Compounds   Naming Binary Ionic Compounds  Polyatomic Ions Naming with Polyatomic Ions  Naming with Roman Numerals  Formula Writing  Naming Acids

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